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### On the Source of the Gravitational Constant at the Low Energy Scale

#### Abstract

In general relativity, gravity is attributed to the geometry of space-time. Further, it is assumed that the gravitational constant (G) originate from the Planck scale. The Compton wavelength (Planck length) L=(\h*G/C^3)^.5 is 1.61e-35 meters and this is associated with the Planck energy 1.2e22 MeV. This energy is far greater than the energy of a proton and the space surrounding each proton is far greater than the Compton wavelength. It is said that the Compton wavelength is nature’s response to geometry and mass at the quantum scale. In this paper, I will discuss the hierarchy of interactions with a focus on gravity, propose a low energy scale source of the gravitational constant, and identify a more fundamental coupling constant with the value 1/exp(90). The approach I use to model expansion is a cellular approach. A cell is the space associated with each proton and has cosmological properties that allow it to represent the universe geometrically. Each cell has an initial radius of 7.34e-14 meters and, if it expands according to WMAP history, its current value is 0.55 meters. WMAP data allows one to estimate the numbers of protons in the universe. By using this approach, it is possible to compare the kinetic energy that expands cells with potential energy. Implications for the fraction of dark energy, baryons and cold dark matter are discussed. Several examples involving the use of the value 1/exp(90) are presented that demonstrate how cellular values predict large scale observations.